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How do I use APA Citation Style

A guide with examples for references and in-text citation

In-text citation examples

One Author

Example 1: It was found that ... (Salkind, 2009).

Example 2: Salkind (2009) found that ...

Subsequent in-text citations are the same.

Reference example:

Salkind, N. J. (2009). Exploring research (7th ed.). Pearson.


Two Authors

Example 1: It was found that … (Gallace & Spence, 2010).

Example 2: Gallace and Spence (2010) found that …

Subsequent in-text citations are the same

Reference example:

Gallace, A., & Spence, C. (2010). The science of interpersonal touch: An overview. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 34(2), 246-259.


Three or more Authors

Example 1: It was found that ... (Bain et al., 2009).

Example 2: Bain et al. (2009) found that ...

Subsequent in-text citation: (Bain et al., 2009)

Reference example: List authors up to 20 (For 21 or more authors, see Section 10.1.4)

Bain, P., Park, J., Kwok, C., & Haslam, N. (2009). Attributing human uniqueness and human nature to cultural groups: Distinct forms of subtle dehumanization. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 12(6), 789-805.


Corporate Authors

Example 1: It was found that ... (Singapore International Foundation [SIF], 2007).

Example 2: Singapore International Foundation (SIF, 2007) found that ... 

Subsequent citation: (SIF, 2007)

Reference example:

Singapore International Foundation. (2007). Gotong royong: SIF celebrates 15 years of friendship with Indonesia


Two or more works - Different authors

Example: Several studies (Fong, 2006; Nemeth & Kwan, 1987; Simonton, 2000).

Note: Arrange alphabetically by author's surnames.

Reference examples:

Fong, C. T. (2006). The effects of emotional ambivalence on creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 49(5), 1016-1030.

Nemeth, C. J., & Kwan, J. (1987). Minority influence, divergent thinking and detection of correct solutions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 17, 788-799.

Simonton, D. K. (2000). Creativity: Cognitive, personal, developmental, and social aspects. American Psychologist, 55(1), 151-158.


Two or more works - Same authors

Example: Several studies (McCrae & Costa, 1987, 1999)...

Note: Arrange in-text citation by year of publication.

Reference example:

McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T., Jr. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 81–90.

McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T., Jr. (1999). A five-factor theory of personality. In L. Pervin & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality (2nd ed., pp. 139-153). Guilford Press.


No author

Example: It was found that ... ("Affordable Housing," 2010). [Use first few words in article title if the article title is long]

Note arrange by article title in Reference list.

Reference example:

Affordable housing a daunting challenge. (2010, June 22). South China Morning Post, 12.

Citing Specific Parts of Source

Citing from Another Source

Sometimes we have no access to an original source, but found the content from another source. This can be cited as:

(Original-Author, YYY1, as cited in Secondary-Author, YYY2)

In References, give the full details of the secondary source only.

Use this sparingly and try your best to read and use the original source where possible.

See the APA FAQ.

The use of electronic resources must comply with the Appropriate Use of Electronic Resources Policy and Singapore Management University Acceptable Use Policy