All examples in this guide are using APA Citation Style (7th) edition.
If you need help with the 6th edition, please visit Purdue OWL. If you have any further queries, please email firstname.lastname@example.org.
When citing website, always make sure you know what you are looking at. If the item is traditionally published in print (book, journal article, magazine, report, dissertation, etc.), refer to the online version of the style for that item (e.g. ebook, online magazine, etc.). Some websites, however, are truly just websites (and are not online surrogates of print publications). For websites that cannot be classified under a formal category, use the following standard format:
Author, A. A./Group. (YYYY, Month dd). Title of webpage. Title of website. URL
Note the following:
Ridgeon, J. (n.d.). How to weave a willow basket: A step by step project for beginners. Jon's Bushcraft. http://www.jonsbushcraft.com/basicbasket.htm
In-text: (Ridgeon, n.d.).
General website (e.g. About page)
Format: Author, A. A. (YYYY, Month dd). Title. Site Name. URL
Ministry of Transport. (n.d.). Mission, vision & values. https://www.mot.gov.sg/about-mot/corporate-profile/mission-vision-values
In-text: (Ministry of Transport, n.d.).
Annual report from company website (Section 10.4)
Format: Author, A. A. (YYYY, Month dd). Title. Publisher. URL
Unilever. (2010). Annual report and accounts 2010. http://www.unilever.ca/Images/Unilever_AR10_tcm25-260444.pdf
In-text: (Unilever, 2010).
Webpage on a news website (Section 10.16)
Format: Author, A. A. (YYYY, Month dd). Title. Site name. URL
Dowd, V. (2020, June 1). How Europe's art world is welcoming back visitors. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/entertainment-arts-52881862
In-text: (Dowd, 2020).
Press release (Section 10.4)
Format: Author, A. A. (YYYY, Month dd). Title [Press release]. Publisher. URL
American Psychological Association. (2019, May 20). People in higher social class have an exaggerated belief they are more capable than others [Press release]. https://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2019/05/social-class-exaggerated-belief
In-text: (American Psychological Association, 2019).
Online video (Section 10.12)
Stanford University. (2005). Steve Jobs' 2005 Stanford commencement address [Video]. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UF8uR6Z6KLc
In-text: (Stanford University, 2005).
Social media posts have additional rules for APA Style.
Facebook (Section 10.15.105)
Gaiman, N. (2012, February 29). Please celebrate Leap Year Day in the traditional manner by taking a writer out for dinner. It’s been four years [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/neilgaiman/posts/10150574185041016
In-text citation: (Gaiman, 2012).
Instagram (Section 10.15.107)
Teo, N. [@nickk_teo]. (2019, March 16). Fell sick and literally had to sleep through the past few days. Training and dieting regime disrupted but oh well [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/BvEDFnDBHDW/
In-text: (Teo, 2019).
LinkedIn (Section 10.15)
Singapore Management University. (n.d.). Overview [LinkedIn page]. LinkedIn. Retrieved 26 May, 2020, from https://sg.linkedin.com/school/singapore-management-university/
In-text: (Singapore Management University, n.d.).
Twitter (Section 10.15.104)
Gates, B. [BillGates]. (2013, February 26). #Polio is 99% eradicated. Join me & @FCBarcelona as we work to finish the job and #EndPolio. VIDEO: http://b-gat.es/X75Lvy [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/BillGates/status/306195345845665792
In-text citation: (Gates, 2013).
Photograph from Social Media post (Section 10.15.107)
National Geographic. (2012, November 20). A supertelephoto lens allowed Colleen Pinski to capture this image of an annual solar eclipse. See more top shots: http://on.natgeo.com/UasjJH [Photograph]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10151148294503951&set=pb.23497828950.-2207520000.1357225190
In-text citation: (National Geographic, 2012).
The photographer can be credited in the narrative, for example, “Colleen Pinski photographed a solar eclipse using a telephoto lens (National Geographic, 2012).”
One unusual exception to how web pages are cited is the 7th edition's rules for 'Blog Posts.' Blogs are considered periodicals (like journals and magazines). In this case, the article title is NOT italicized, but the site name IS italicized.
Blog Post (Section 10.1)
Format: Author, A. A. (YYYY, Month dd). Post title. Site Name. URL
Goud, B. (2009, December 3). What can we learn from sukuk defaults? Sharing Risk. http://investhalal.blogspot.com/2009/12/what-can-we-learn-from-sukuk-defaults.html
In-text: (Goud, 2009).