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SMU Libraries

How do I use APA Citation Style

A guide with examples for references and in-text citation

APA Citation Style - 7th edition

All examples in this guide are using APA Citation Style (7th) edition 

If you need help with the 6th edition, please visit Purdue OWL.   If you have any further queries, please email library@smu.edu.sg.

Overview

When citing website, always make sure you know what you are looking at.  If the item is traditionally published in print (book, journal article, magazine, report, dissertation, etc.), refer to the online version of the style for that item (e.g. ebook, online magazine, etc.).  Some websites, however, are truly just websites (and are not online surrogates of print publications).  For websites that cannot be classified under a formal category, use the following standard format:

Author, A. A./Group. (YYYY, Month dd). Title of webpage. Title of website. URL

Note the following:

  • The title of the webpage is italicized.  The name of the website, itself, is not italicized.  
  • If the website or format of the web content is special in any way, include the description or format in brackets after the title.
  • If there is no date associated with the exact page (do not use the copyright date for the whole site), then indicate "no date" with (n.d.). for the date portion of the reference. 
  • If the author and the site name/publisher are the same, omit the website name from the reference.

Example:

Ridgeon, J. (n.d.). How to weave a willow basket: A step by step project for beginners. Jon's Bushcraft. http://www.jonsbushcraft.com/basicbasket.htm

In-text: (Ridgeon, n.d.).

Website examples

General website (e.g. About page)

Format: Author, A. A. (YYYY, Month dd). Title. Site Name. URL

 

Ministry of Transport. (n.d.). Mission, vision & values. https://www.mot.gov.sg/about-mot/corporate-profile/mission-vision-values

In-text: (Ministry of Transport, n.d.).

 

Annual report from company website (Section 10.4)

Format: Author, A. A. (YYYY, Month dd). Title. Publisher. URL

 

Unilever. (2010). Annual report and accounts 2010http://www.unilever.ca/Images/Unilever_AR10_tcm25-260444.pdf

In-text: (Unilever, 2010).

 

Webpage on a news website (Section 10.16)

Format: Author, A. A. (YYYY, Month dd). Title. Site name. URL

 

Dowd, V. (2020, June 1). How Europe's art world is welcoming back visitors. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/entertainment-arts-52881862

In-text: (Dowd, 2020).

 

Press release (Section 10.4)

Format: Author, A. A. (YYYY, Month dd). Title [Press release].  Publisher. URL

 

American Psychological Association. (2019, May 20). People in higher social class have an exaggerated belief they are more capable than others [Press release]. https://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2019/05/social-class-exaggerated-belief

In-text: (American Psychological Association, 2019).

 

Social Media

Social media posts have additional rules for APA Style. 

  • Only include text of the social media post up to the first 20 words.
  • Retain hashtags, links and replicate emojis, if possible.  If emojis are not available, describe the emoji in square brackets (e.g. [praying hands emoji].  Each emoji counts as one word.
  • Note any audiovisuals associated with the post in square brackets after the text of the post.  Some common descriptions include: [Facebook page], [Highlight], [Image attached], [Infographic], [Online forum post], [Photograph], [Status update], [Thumbnail with link attached], [Tweet], [Twitter profile], [Video]. 

 

Facebook (Section 10.15.105)

Gaiman, N. (2012, February 29). Please celebrate Leap Year Day in the traditional manner by taking a writer out for dinner. It’s been four years [Status update]. Facebook.  https://www.facebook.com/neilgaiman/posts/10150574185041016

In-text citation: (Gaiman, 2012).

 

Instagram (Section 10.15.107)

Teo, N. [@nickk_teo]. (2019, March 16). Fell sick and literally had to sleep through the past few days. Training and dieting regime disrupted but oh well [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/BvEDFnDBHDW/

In-text: (Teo, 2019).

 

LinkedIn (Section 10.15)

Singapore Management University. (n.d.). Overview [LinkedIn page]. LinkedIn. Retrieved 26 May, 2020, from https://sg.linkedin.com/school/singapore-management-university/

In-text: (Singapore Management University, n.d.).

 

Twitter (Section 10.15.104)

Gates, B. [BillGates]. (2013, February 26). #Polio is 99% eradicated. Join me & @FCBarcelona as we work to finish the job and #EndPolio. VIDEO: http://b-gat.es/X75Lvy [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/BillGates/status/306195345845665792

In-text citation: (Gates, 2013).

 

Photograph from Social Media post (Section 10.15.107)

National Geographic. (2012, November 20). A supertelephoto lens allowed Colleen Pinski to capture this image of an annual solar eclipse. See more top shots: http://on.natgeo.com/UasjJH [Photograph]. Facebook. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10151148294503951&set=pb.23497828950.-2207520000.1357225190


In-text citation: (National Geographic, 2012).

The photographer can be credited in the narrative, for example, “Colleen Pinski photographed a solar eclipse using a telephoto lens (National Geographic, 2012).”

Blog Post

One unusual exception to how web pages are cited is the 7th edition's rules for 'Blog Posts.'  Blogs are considered periodicals (like journals and magazines). In this case, the article title is NOT italicized, but the site name IS italicized.  

 

Blog Post (Section 10.1)

The use of electronic resources must comply with the Appropriate Use of Electronic Resources Policy and Singapore Management University Acceptable Use Policy