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SMU Libraries

How do I use APA Citation Style

A guide with examples for references and in-text citation

APA Citation Style - 7th edition

 All examples in this guide are using APA Citation Style (7th) edition 

If you need help with the 6th edition, please visit Purdue OWL.   If you have any further queries, please email library@smu.edu.sg.

Book References

The formats provided below are based on Section 10.2 in the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed.

Book Chapters

The formats provided below are based on Section 10.3 in the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed.

Dictionaries & Encyclopedias

The formats provided below are based on Section 10.3 in the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed.

Rules, rules, rules!

For a comprehensive list of APA citation rules, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, as well as the APA Style Blog (an official companion to the Publication Manual).  Here are a few common rules related to article citations:

  • Retrieval dates: Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time (e.g. Wikis).  If needed, provide the retrieval date in the format: Retrieved Month dd, YYYY, from URL
  • Retrieved from: The prefix "Retrieved from" is no longer needed before URLs. 
  • URLs and DOIs:
    • Where a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is provided, use it in the citation in the format: https://doi.org/10.1108/13527600810870589 

    • Where no DOI is provided and the article is retrieved online, give the URL of the publication or the journal home page. This can be easily found using Google Scholar. 

    • Where the article is from private or non-commercial sources or hard to locate, give the complete and specific URL.

    • If no publication URL is available, and you retrieved the item from one of the Libraries' databases, no URL is needed.  You will treat this as a print iteml.

  • Volume for books:

    • Always include volume number for books.

    • If the information is not available, omit it from the reference. 

  • Pagination (p. and pp.)

    • The prefix pp. only goes before page numbers reported for book chapter and encyclopaedia article references.

  • Place of publication:

    • Omit the place of publication.  Instead, only list the publisher.

The use of electronic resources must comply with the Appropriate Use of Electronic Resources Policy and Singapore Management University Acceptable Use Policy