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Dissertation / Thesis Research and Writing: Citation Styles

Guide to help students in researching and writing their thesis/dissertation


According to the SMU Code of Integrity, plagiarism is defined as using the ideas, data, or language of another without specific or proper acknowledgment. More information concerning plagiarism can be found in the research guide " How do I avoid Plagiarism"?

To avoid plagiarism, an author has to cite the references used in his research paper or other works. The references are often compiled, based on a particular citation style.

  What is a citation style or citation format?

A citation style or format refers to the particular rules and conventions that have been established for documenting sources used in a research paper or other works. Examples of citation styles are APA Citation Style and Chicago Citation Style.

More information on these citation styles can be found in the following research guides:

1. How do I use APA Citation Style?

2. How do I use Chicago Citation Style?

3. How do I use Chicago Author-Date Citation Style?


A bibliographic management software such as EndNote helps to facilitate the compilation of references.The following research guides on EndNote are available:

1. How do I use EndNote Web?

2. How do I Use EndNote X6


The use of electronic resources must comply with the Appropriate Use of Electronic Resources Policy and Singapore Management University Acceptable Use Policy