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How do I use APA Citation Style: Other References

A guide with examples for references and in-text citation

Documents found in Databases

Other Formats

Tables and Charts

When reproducing or adapting a table, chart or figure from another source, add in a note below the table, chart or figure the details of the source. Written permission for print and electronic reuse must be obtained from the copyright holder, if you are publishing your work.

See the example for Data Sets above if your refer to and use the data.


For Journal articles:

  • YYYY = Year, e.g. 2009
  • VX = Volume number
  • IX = Issue number
  • xxx = Starting page number
  • yyy = Ending page number
  • Month dd = date in month, e.g. June 24


Where a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is provided, use it in the citation. No need for any further retrieval information or retrieval date.

Where no DOI is provided and the article is retrieved online, give the URL of the publication home page. No retrieval date is needed. Do not give the specific URL to databases like JSTOR or Proquest. Instead provide the URL to the home page, e.g. Retrieved from

Where the article is from private or non-commercial sources or hard to locate, give the complete and specific URL.

Where required by style of publication or by faculty or if the material content may change over time, provide the retrieval date in the format: Retrieved Month dd, YYYY, from URL

The use of electronic resources must comply with the Appropriate Use of Electronic Resources Policy and Singapore Management University Acceptable Use Policy